Tuesday, 31 March 2009
9 Basic Categories
Whirlwind (or Plasma Vortex) Theory
Earth Ley-lines and Gaia Hypothesis
Microwave Transient Heating
Visit the Crop Circle picture page
The following outline is a summary of theories and working hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of crop circle formation. Bear in mind that there are literally thousands of scientists, mathematicians, researchers, and physicists out there who have heard of crop circle phenomena, and like yourself, harbor their own pet theories about how, why, and by whom these glyphs are produced. Keep an open mind as you scan through the ideas and conjectures. Remember that it is all too easy to grasp for certainty at the beginning of a mystery, and then all too easy to throw criticism at something which does not satisfy all the known facts. We encourage you to enter fully into this enigma, applying everything you know to what is unknown. Think of the whole phenomena as if it were an egg-shape of an ellipse. One focus of the ellipse is common knowledge, the other focus being the mystery. As you revolve around both foci, you will gradually bring a new understanding into awareness.
What is presented here is a synopsis of published findings and theories, and in no way does it pretend to be the final word. One of the interesting epiphenomena around this whole thing is the interactiveness of the formations with what various people are thinking and saying about it. Early on Terrence Meaden went public with his theory of the plasma vortex, and he treated it like a meteorology problem. Just as he had convinced the media and many leading researchers that his theory was correct....the circles began turning into pictograms, more complex, and unfortunately for Dr. Meaden, unexplainable by his vortex theory. Further stories of pattern premonitions and wish fulfillment have been common, but this will not be covered here, because we are more interested in building a bridge from conventional science to the crop circle phenomena. As the ideas and theories build up into a heady ferment of thought, most likely we'll see the crop circles step up to their new evolutionary level. This would be miraculous to see, as if it hasn't been miraculous already.
9 Basic Theories: An Overview (Colin Andrews)
1- Whirlwind Vortex
2- Plasma Vortex
3- Earth Energies
4- Extra-Terrestrial Origin
5- Underground Archaeological
6- Chemical Applications (no longer considered)
8- God Force
9- Military Experimentation
As members of the CCCS (Centre for Crop Circle Studies) will tell you, the varieties and types of theories abound. The CCCS began in 1990 as a collaborative effort between professional researchers, authors, gifted psychics and dowsers, to establish a base station for scientific studies of the circles. The group is presently 400 members strong around the world, based in the UK, and has branch convenors in different parts of the U.S. and Canada. The scope of the research is quite open-ended, and owing to its voluntary efforts, conducts research according to the personal predilections of its authors and volunteers. Since many members have a decidedly metaphysical bent, some of the experiments are concerned with subjective effects on people, anomalous light, sound, and otherworldly contacts. While the stated purposes of the CCCS are quite clear, the elusive nature of the phenomena itself has made it difficult if not impossible to reach a consensus of opinion over the direction of research and the validity of results.
As a member of this group for less than a year, I have heard a number of independent voices state clearly that a plasma physicist would be the most valued person to enter the fray at this point. The idea that we are witnessing a directed plasma, leaving aside the questions of origin and intent, seems to keep re-emerging. All of the eyewitness descriptions of light phenomena, the T. Meaden hypothesis of Plasma-Vortex, the microwave energy of W.C. Levengood and others tends to point to a plasma- based phenomena. Almost everyone has seen arc phenomena such as lightning, the V-shaped Tesla spark ladder of Frankenstein fame, or of more recent vintage, the clear bubble-glass discharge of rare gases which you see in night clubs. As an experimental physicist, I have used microwave cavities to locally heat a plasma, and deliver ionized gas, such as O2 and N2 mixtures to a target. For me, the assumption of plasma and microwave energies are not incompatible. It is well-known in physics that there is a characteristic "plasma frequency" which is a measure of its cut-off frequency. Frequencies below this will be attenuated and/or reflected, while the frequencies above will propagate through with a real-valued "index of refraction", ie, as if it were an optical material. The unusual feature of the crop circle plasma is that it has no obvious confining walls. In a lab-based plasma, the "sheath" is generally a magnetic field, or a standing-wave pattern of microwaves. In the case of arc-discharge, the ultra-fast current created by breakdown into ions and electrons sets up its own constrictive "sheath" by Ampere's circuit law. So where is the magnetic sheath in a crop circle? And how is it positioned so carefully?
One opinion which seems to keep rising to the surface is that there has to be a "ground component" to this whole phenomena. A number of facts support this idea. The stalks are bent at 90 degrees at a consistent distance with respect to the topsoil (1 inch is typical). The CC sites are located on ley-lines and points connecting other geographic features (ie, roads, sacred sites, farmer's plough marks, etc). One researcher has reported that there is a 90% correlation with water from the ground....and the beginning of the plant stem is arguably the locale for the highest density of flowing H2O throughout the plant. Anyone who wishes to pay respects to Gaia as the mother of this whole invention may also do so at this juncture....there is ample room for telluric forces and gravity effects. (The stalks do fall downward, after all is said and done!)
My personal opinion is that we are not even scratching the surface yet. If you look into current research in plasma physics, you will discover that resonant structures such as "flute-shaped", toroidal, or "balooning" structures can be formed inside of a plasma. If you classify the plasma as "far from equilibrium" then you are opening up a Pandora's box of unknown phenomena which may or may not be spontaneously generated. It is a generally accepted notion since Ilya Prigogine did his work on thermodynamics of dissipative structures, that in situations far from equilibrium, new order is established internally by self-organization. These new ordering "structures" tend to reflect the boundaries and "sheaths" of the host medium. Perhaps the plasma light that people have reported in crop circles is confined by sheaths of telluric fields which are geomagnetic. Then that would imply that earth fields are moveable and have fluid properties. Personally, I like what Barbara Hand Clow mentioned in her new work, The Pleadian Agenda (see reference). While speaking from her "Satya" channel, she mentioned that Pleadians consider the interaction of gravity and stellar light to be the most essential in-formation. (read: "inner formation"). I think that stellar light is the capstone of the creative pyramid, which guides and directs certain transformations of matter and energy. In this scheme, a plasma is only the fourth phase of matter out of seven, with gases, liquids, and solids toward the base of the pyramid. Gravity is the matrix which binds and gives continuity....in the sense of Einsteinian curved space around matter. Gravity is traction, while stellar light is inclination. Stellar light might be the plasma that appears during crop circle formations, but governed internally by a genius loci, not a laboratory emulation. (The dictionary defines "genius loci" to be the presiding deity or spirit of a place....it has the same root that appears in genesis and generation.) I think that to procede further along the lines of these admitedly "New Age" ideas, one would have to look closely at the evidence of the plants themselves, to see what specifically has been transformed. Is it the conversion of ammonia in the nitrogen cycle? Is it the cell turgidity changed by some water diffusion process that has been altered? Are the dissolved gases in the xylem tubes the same concentrations as in the control samples? Or are the changes affected entirely at the genetic level, and somehow rapidly dispatched into new cell copies? (This would accord with B.H. Clow's channeled message that DNA has a "stellar component".)
In the long view, it may not even matter what the current theories and public disclosures proclaim. The fact that you became interested, and opened up just enough to look at some new ideas......THAT might be the best occurence yet!
WHIRLWIND VORTEX (also known as PLASMA VORTEX)
The first theory proposed by Dr. Terrence Meaden in the 1980's attempted to explain all spirally generated circle patterns as a product of entirely natural atmospheric phenomena. Meaden likened the vortex to dustdevils, tornados, etc., but also including friction-generated plasma which could account for the anomalous light phenomena which many eyewitnesses had seen. Meaden claimed the forces involved were hitherto "unrecognized helical or toroidal forces" which had "subsidiary electromagnetic properties due to self-electrification." The vortex would presumably form high above the ground, then suddenly "breakdown" to the ground level in an axial strike. The theory was plausible for a number of years, with further corroboration obtained in Japan by Dr. Y.H. Ohtsuki and Prof. H. Ofuruton. Their lab reserach produced similar vortices by electrostatic discharge and microwave interference. Theoretical work on the plasma-vortex was carried out by Prof. H. Kikuchi, Japan, who modeled the vortex using energy potentials including an interaction term between an axial electric field and the earth's magnetic field.
Although Dr. Meaden was possibly the first to equate a meteorological event with a plasma-vortex, the term is not new to plasma physics. A 1970 Nobel Prize winning physicist, Hannes Alfven, developed several theories of wave propagation in plasmas. His broad vision embraces interstellar and laboratory phenomena, for he was interested in those properties of lab plasmas which could be used to form a cosmogony (a theory of evolution). The bulk of his work relates to magnetohydrodynamics, an area of plasma physics which investigates acoustic and magnetic interactions within an electrically conductive fluid or gas. It is an advanced subject, but Alfven wave concepts are at heart quite intuitive.
Basically, Alfven waves are ripples or propagating waves on top of plasma-vortex structures. The vortex structures themselves form spontaneously within a plasma from shear flows and instabilities. Once formed, however, they can propagate waves in various modes, as well as deliver momentum across large distances. How does this relate to crop circles? A plasma-vortex structure such as a toroid, or a moving spiral, can explain the gentle "groomed" appearance of the plant stalks after a formation has occured. The stalks show no mechanical chafing or damage, which would be the case if struck by a sudden whirlwind or tornado. I believe that Alfven waves create the final "push" which pulsates along the axes of vortex structures. How these are generated, and where they begin is still quite an intruiging mystery.
The whirlwind vortex, or upward-axis vortex as it was promulgated by Dr. Meaden, was sufficient to explain all of the true "circles" appearing in the 1980's. However, the whirlwind theory became public "disinformation" as soon as the first large-scale pictograms began appearing in Britain as early as 1990. This new dimension to the shape of the phenomena began to inform people that much larger, more complex forces were at work. It could no longer be a simple combination of "hitherto unrecognized" natural forces. In addition to the anomalous light phenomena, several more reports of a 5KHz "trilling sound" were taken from witnesses in the vicinity of the formations, none of which could be explained by revolving wind and charge clouds. Straight lines began to appear in the pictograms, with stems of the plants lying parallel to the outer contours of the lines. Obviously, Meaden's theory was in need of modification.
EARTH LEY-LINES AND GAIA HYPOTHESIS
The unusual nature of the crop formations attracted many other researchers from outside of strict materialistic science. Ever since the early '80's when the basic circles became a frequent overnight appearance in southern England, archeologists, mystics, ecologists, and specialists in indigenous cultures began to recognize the symbolism in the shapes of the circles, as well as their proximity to known sacred sites. In particular, the complex of megalithic henges known as Avebury and Stonehenge, with the related earthmound of Silbury Hill and the original site of Salisbury at Old Sarum, were host to many of the circle formations in the late 80's and early 90's. The ancient arts of geomancy, sacred geometry, and dowsing were given new life, at least from a speculative point of view, in relation to the circle sites and the network of earth energies known as ley-lines. While the original meaning of "ley-lines" has been lost to us, it was considered by historians of sacred sites to be a "vital current" which flowed through the earth, often running huge distances.
We can only speculate today that it may have something to do with either geomagnetic activity of the earth's crust, or perhaps charge accumulations from groundwater running through porous chalk deposits, known to be ubiquitous in the U.K. Such charge accumulations can redistribute and spill over to other sites on the ground, giving a "moving target" for electrical discharges coming from the air. Here we are on thin ground because we are trying to apply modern science to ancient religious custom and belief. The ancient indigenous tribes may well have had a direct understanding of earth cycles and "ley lines" which they used to build their religious and archeo-astronomical sites. The only remaining connection between crop circles and the ancient peoples are to be found in symbol and legend, also in ancient prophecy. The Mayan and Hopi religion are two examples of cultures which maintained prophecies of signs appearing at the end of the millenium, although the details and references are beyond the scope of this outline. Certain similarities can also be drawn between the pictograms in the crops and cup-and-ring markings on the stones of pre- historic sites in Britain, Ireland, and Whales, but it is not known what kind of knowledge and communications these pre-historic people actually had.
The Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock has had considerable support since the appearance of crop-circle phenomena, and this is closely related to earth energies. The Gaia approach is a holistic, all-encompassing way of looking at earth phenomena in terms of a vital, living being which is self- protective and self-adaptive to its own environmental stresses, much the same way an organism or an animal would respond to external and internal stimuli. The controversial aspects of Lovelock's hypothesis are the cybernetic versus the organismic components. If a natural feedback cycle--- suppose we take the nitrogen cycle of plants for instance--displays parts which behave in a predictable, controlled feedback loop, then Gaia is demonstrating a cybernetic feature. However, if we see a unique and creative response to known stimuli, then Gaia evinces an organismic feature. Scientists generally find this dualism to be a logical contradiction. If there seems to be a larger, global purpose at work, then local phenomena cannot be reduced to a mechanism...which is generally maddening to most scientists. The crop circles tend to fall into this category of "organismic" responses, and most scientists, lacking solid answers to the "how" of crop circles, would like to bow out of the "why" of crop circles altogether.
There are exceptions, however. Researchers such as Colin Andrews and Pat Delgado, authors of the best-selling books Circular Evidence and Crop Circles: The Latest Evidence, have embraced the Gaia hypothesis as a meaningful explanation that the earth is now undergoing a realignment. It can no longer support the anti-life tendencies and continuous disregard the human populations have shown, and seeks to readjust all forms of consciousness to its new directive. The crop circles are a "spiritual nudge" which is designed to awaken us to our larger context and milieu, which is none other than our collective earth soul. This type of theory is teleological, in that it answers more of the "why"-type questions regarding purpose, instead of the "how"-type questions usually posed by modern academic science. It is legitimate, and avoids the myopic views of cybernetic and mechanistic reductionism.
Both the earth energy and Gaia approach to understanding the whole crop-circle phenomena will be needed if one is to arrive at a satisfying explanation. There are just too many factors surrounding the placement of CC's, their juxtaposition to known sacred sites, their inherent symbolism, and of course, their arrival at this time for anyone to ignore the earth connection. It is a shortcoming of modern science that it places too much emphasis on technology and economically-driven research. This leaves us largely unconscious of the larger forces of nature which environ us but are only recently beginning to be felt.
MICROWAVE TRANSIENT HEATING
Several years of incomplete theorizing, and still more circles appeared with similar characteristics. In January 1991, Dr. William C. Levengood approached Pat Delgado with an offer to apply some scientific methods to study the affected plants. Dr. Levengood has impressive credentials which include six patents and fifty papers for international scientific journals. He is a biophysicist who specializes in bioelectrochemical energies in plants and seeds. Working out of his Pinelandia Biophysical Lab in Michigan, he proceeded to examine many samples of affected stalks using microscopic techniques. One of the qualitative features which emerged directly from his comparison of affected plants versus control plants (obtained from the same fields) was the expansion of the "nodes", or elbow points along the stalks. In these particular regions, expansion of the cell walls had occurred, as well as enlarging of the "pits" or exchange pores in the cell walls. These holes are the exchange sites for ions and electrolytes in water to transport into and out of the cells. The curious feature about these holes was their sharp outline of trapezoidal-shaped edges, as opposed to a rather flat round appearance in the control samples.
Furthermore, Dr. Levengood performed an analysis of seed embryos from the glumes (husks) of the plant heads. In 40% of the glumes he found seed deformation of some kind as compared with the controls. "Most of these deformations can be explained by premature dehydration of the seeds," according to Dr. Levengood. However, a large fraction of these glumes showed "alterations" which he has assumed are genetic, but are rare conditions of "polyembryony" and arrested growth of the embryos without the next layer of endosperm. To study this condition further, he has proceeded to grow new generations of these affected seeds, and the results have been remarkable. I leave it up to the reader to find Dr. Levengood's paper and learn more. (See reference at end.)
In some of these affected nodes, there was a split or hole opening to the outside air, indicating that some internal pressure had released at that point. It is known that the node areas contain more water per volume than other areas of the plants, so it appeared possible to Dr. Levengood that some kind of steam heating was taking place. He was also able to bend nodes of unaffected plants quite readily after a brief exposure to microwaves in a standard microwave oven. This result, coupled with the alternation of the seeds has led Dr. Levengood to a working hypothesis of microwave-type energy at work, rapidly heating and depleting the stored water regions within the nodes. It is known from military research and development that microwave radiation in the low gigahertz range can be directed from far away, provided that atmospheric conditions are permitting. (There has never been a report of a crop circle being formed in a rainstorm, for example.) The genetic part of the seed alteration cannot be explained by microwave radiation alone. For this, Dr. Levengood is simply reporting observations, and not jumping to any conclusions about genetic changes.
Other researchers, such as Omar Fowler have also concluded that microwave radiation is involved based on his study of "crease and burn marks" in the plant stems. He saw single standing stems of 22 inch height consistently in otherwise flattened circle areas. He believes this to be consistent with microwaves in the low gigahertz range of frequency. Another current researcher in the public eye, Roy Dutton, has assumed a microwave radiation combined with gravitational waves is responsible. Although he does not develop a model for the radiation interaction, he has put together a computer model of the flattening process which mimics the layout of the plant stalks remarkably well.
Credits to this article go to Brian Hussey
Bartholomew, Alick, Crop Circles - Harbingers of World Change, Bath, UK: Gateway Books, 1991.
Clow, Barbara Hand, The Pleiadian Agenda--A New Cosmology for the Age of Light, Santa Fe, NM:Bear & Co., 1995, pp. 65-66.
Hesemann, Michael, The Cosmic Connection: Worldwide Crop Formations and ET Contacts, Bath, UK:Gateway Books, 1995; in particular see chap. 7, "A Solution to the Mystery?"p.77.
Hollweg, Joseph V., "Alfven waves," McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 1, 1993, pp. 351-354.
Levengood, W.C., "Anatomical Anomalies In Crop Formation Plants," Physiologia Plantarum, 92:356-363 (1994).
Lundin, R. and Marklund, G. "Plasma-Vortex Structures and the Evolution of the Solar System -- The Legacy of Hannes Alfven," Physica Scripta, T60:198-205(1995).
Nicholson, S. and Rosen, B.(ed.), Gaia's Hidden Life: The Unseen Intelligence of Nature, Wheaton, IL:Quest Books, 1992. See Lovelock, James, "What Is Gaia?", p59.
Noyes, R. and Taylor, B., The Crop Circle Enigma, Bath, UK:Gateway Books, 1990. In particular, see Meaden, T. "Crop Circles and the Plasma Vortex," p.76, also Wingfield, G., "Beyond the Current Paradigms", p.99.
One of the most contentious aspects of the many-faceted UFO enigma is the allegation that a number of flying saucers, together with their occupants, have crash-landed, and have been recovered by the military forces, acting in great secrecy. Such claims generally are dismissed for lack of proof, yet evidence in some cases is compelling. One series of incidents that seems indisputable - in the sense that several hundred witnesses have testified to it - is among the most thoroughly documented cases on record. Numerous TV documentaries and a film have now appeared as well as several books describing investigations into the so-called Roswell Incident (by William Moore and Charles Berlitz; Stanton Friedman and Don Berliner; Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt; and Karl Pflock). The following is a necessarily abbreviated account of a complex case which seems to have involved three separate crash sites in New Mexico. One was at Corona; the precise locations of the other two are still in dispute.
The Corona Debris:
During a violent thunderstorm in the first week of July 1947, an unusual aerial vehicle crashed on the J. B. Foster Ranch, south-east of Corona and about 75 miles north-west of Roswell, New Mexico. Early the next morning, ranch manager William `Mac' Brazel discovered a large amount of unusual debris scattered over a wide area. A few days later, Brazel drove into Roswell and alerted Sheriff George Wilcox, who in turn contacted Roswell Army Air Field, home of the elite 509th Bomb Group, the world's first atomic-bomb unit. Major Jesse Marcel, the bomb group's intelligence officer, together with Captain Sheridan Cavitt, a Counter Intelligence Corps officer, accompanied Mac Brazel to the site, where a quantity of wreckage was eventually recovered. Marcel testified that he found an area measuring about three-quarters of a mile long by 200 to 300 feet wide, strewn with a large amount of extremely lightweight, strong material.
"We found some . . . small bits of metal, but mostly we found some material that's hard to describe," Marcel told journalist Bob Pratt in 1979. "I'd never seen anything like that, and I still don't know what it was . . . I lit a cigarette lighter to some of this stuff, and it didn't burn. There were also small, solid members that you could not bend or break, but it didn't look like metal. It looked more like wood. They varied in size . . . perhaps three-eighths of an inch by one quarter of an inch thick . . . None of them were very long. The largest of these was about 3 feet long, but weightless. You couldn't even tell you had it in your hands - just like you handle balsa wood." Marcel also described having seen unusual two-colour `hieroglyphics' on some of the pieces, as well as parchment-like material which, again, did not burn.
In another interview in 1979, Marcel described how later he tried unsuccessfu1ly to bend or dent a piece of extremely light and thin metal which was about 2 feet long and a foot wide. "I tried to bend the stuff [but) it wouldn't bend," he said. "We even tried making a dent in it with a sixteen-pound sledge hammer. And there was still no dent in it . . . It was possible to Bend this stuff back and forth, even to wrinkle it, but you could not put a crease in it that would stay . . . I would almost have to describe it as a metal with plastic properties." Marcel was convinced that the material had nothing to do with a weather balloon or radar target.
The area near Corona was sealed off by the military, and a wide search was initiated to recover the remaining debris. An official press statement was released at the Roswell base, authorized by Colonel William Blanchard, Commander of the 509th Bomb Group. "I had a call from Colonel Blanchard, and he told me to report to his office," said Walter Haut, base press officer at the time, during an interview with me. "He gave me the basic facts that he wanted put into the news release . . . that we had in our possession a flying saucer: A rancher had brought parts of it in to the Sheriff's office, and the material was flown to General Ramey, who was Commanding General of the Eighth Air Force."
Major Marcel was ordered to load the debris on a B-29 (one of several aircraft said to have been involved in transporting the materials from Roswell Army Air Field) and fly it to Wright Field (now Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) at Dayton, Ohio, for examination. On arrival at an intermediate stop at Fort Worth Army Air Field (later Carswell Air Force Base), Texas (headquarters of the Eighth Air Force), General Roger Ramey took charge. He ordered Marcel and others on the plane not to talk to reporters. A second press statement then was issued which stated that the wreckage wvas nothing more than the remains of a weather balloon and its attached tinfoil radar target, which were prominently displayed at the press conference. Meanwhile, the real wreckage arrived at Wright Field under armed guard; Marcel returned to Roswell, and Brazel was held incommunicado by the military for nearly a week while the crash site was stripped of every scrap of debris.
A news leak via press wire from Albuquerque describing this fantastic story was interrupted and the radio station in question, and another, were warned not to continue the broadcast: `ATTENTION ALBUQUERQUE: CEASE TRANSMISSION. REPEAT. CEASE TRANSMISSION. NATIONAL SECURITY ITEM. DO NOT TRANSMIT. STAND BY . . .'
It has been suggested that at least some of the wreckage found near Corona could have come from a Top Secret project to develop a means of detecting and monitoring Soviet nuclear weapons - code-named Project Mogul - which conducted its operations from Alamogordo Army Air Field, New Mexico, in June and July 1947, using high-altitude balloon arrays and attached instrument packages. Flight 7, for instance, which lifted off on 2 July - when the unidentified aircraft is reported as having crashed near Corona - incorporated twenty meteorological balloons (to support the various devices attached). The array measured about 450 feet from top to bottom. All that was recovered at the landing-site - 31 miles east of Alamogordo in the Sacramento Mountains - was `one balloon neck'. On 3 July, another array of balloons (Flight 8) - made of then new polyethylene material - touched down about 20 miles west-north-west of the Alamogordo base and last was seen dragging north across the desert. Nothing ever was recovered. Although there is no proof that these balloons (and others in the Mogul series) came down in the Corona area, it is certainly possible that one of them - or at least some of the materials - did.
In his book Roswell in Perspective, Karl Pflock, a former CIA officer whose background in government induded a position as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Deputy Director) for Operational Test and Evaluation, states his belief that one or more of these balloon arrays was responsible for the debris found near Corona (a conclusion shared by the Air Force in its 1994 report, to be discussed later). More recent research suggests that Mogul Flight 4, launched on 4 June 1947, was the one most likely to have come down in the vicinity of Corona. (Pflock remains open- minded, however, to the probability that alien or unusual bodies were recovered elsewhere.) He correlates descriptions of the unknown debris with the known materials used in the Mogul arrays, induding the testimony of Dr Jesse Marcel Jr (Major Marcel's son) who handled some of the Corona wreckage collected by his father. In an affidavit, Jesse Jr reported that the debris included:
. . . a brittle, brownish-black plastic-like material, like Bakelite; and there were fragments of what appeared to be I-beams. On the inner surface of the I-beam, there appeared to be a type of writing [of] a purple-violet hue, and it had an embossed appearance. The figures were composed of curved, geometric shapes. It had noresemblance to Russian, Japanese or any other foreign language. It resembled hieroglyphics, but it had no animal-like characters
As Pflock points out, materials used in the construction of Project Mogul's instrument packages included aluminium foil laminated on to a tough white or brown paper or tough aluminium-coated paper, struts of hardened balsawood, Bakelite, and clear or whitish sticky tape, about 2 inches wide, with `pink and purple flower-like figures on it'. Mac Brazel's daughter, Bessie, who helped her father collect some of the debris on their ranch, recalls that:
The debris looked like pieces of a large balloon which had burst . . . Most of it was a kind of double-sided material, foil-like on one side and rubbery-like on the other . . . the foil more silvery than the rubber. Sticks, like kite sticks, were attached to some of the pieces with a whitish tape . . . about two or three inches wide and had flower-like designs on it . . .
It is evident from the foregoing that at least some of the wreckage recovered on Mac Brazel's ranch may have been of man-made origin, though it is impossible to reconcile this explanation with all the facts. Major Marcel, it should be noted, was familiar with balloon debris and was convinced that the material he handled was unfamiliar, in that it was impossible to dent or burn, and that, no matter what was done to it, the foil-like metal always returned to its original shape. Such materials hardly relate to Mogul.
Currently the State Surgeon of Montana and a colonel with the Montana Air National Guard (flying helicopters), Jesse Jr disputes the contention that the debris he handled was from a Mogul balloon or instrument package. `The Mogul device apparently was a lot of metal foil with white paper backing to strengthen it,' he said in 1995. `The material I saw was metal foil, but did not have the white paper backing.' Lieutenant McAndrew - the Air Force's principal researcher for the 1994 report, who interviewed Dr Marcel after the Air Force had prepared its report, also said that the debris included tape with flowery figures written across it. `Well, I didn't see any tape,' said Dr Marcel. `And there was supposed to be some balsa wood struts with the Mogul device, but I didn't see any balsa wood. I saw metal struts, not balsa wood struts, and the writing I saw was on the metal strut itself, not on tape.'
This is the type most commonly referred to as the greys. Also known as Zeta Reticuli from the Zeta Reticulan star system (the Bernard star) neighboring the Orion area. They function in a mode that is apparently military in nature with a rigidly defined social structure that holds science and "conquering worlds" to be the prime movers. They are normally about 4.5 ft tall with large heads and black "wrap around" eyes. They have limited facial features, slit mouth and no nose to speak of. They have evolved beyond the need for reproductive systems or digestive systems and reproduce by cloning. Their genetics are partly based on insectoidal genetics.
Their science deals largely with the study of other life forms and genetic engineering. They have supposedly had a part to play in the alteration of human genetics over thousands of years. It seems that they may be trying to cross breed with humans in order to create a "mixture race" that would be better than either. (I've read that they are a dying species, that have cloned so much that now, with each successive cloning, the species grows weaker. They are trying to infuse new life into their species by creating the mixed breed.)
There seem to be two main social classes. One is the more hawkish and is more abrupt, crude and blunt. The more dove-like ones are more refined and capable of a more business-like behavior towards humans, and prefer to use more "diplomatic" behavior to gain control over human's. This type of Grey is what I believe is being referred to as the "Orange" class of Greys.
They seem to be emotionless (by human standards) and therefore are seen as cruel in their treatment of human beings. They are able to take human lives without any regard for that individual. They apparently can use certain substances of the human body for their sustenance and therefore appear to be carnivorous in regards to humans. (I also read that they extract fluid from some part of the human brain during intense emotional response [fear] and are able to use it like a recreational drug.) It is my understanding that these greys are actually servants to a master race of reptilian-type aliens and are trying to prepare the earth for their arrival by gaining control over the earth through many means. They tend to enjoy the feeling of freedom they have on earth, away from their masters and would desire the help of humans in confrontations with the reptilians...which appears to be a consideration for the near future.
These greys have their best known bases in New Mexico and Nevada but are also known to have bases in many countries of the world.
GREY TYPE B:
Tall Greys from Orion. Usually about 7 to 8 ft. tall (reports often exaggerate their height as being 9 to 12 ft.) with facial feature somewhat similar to grey type A with the exception of the large nose found on type B greys. These greys also have technologies that allow them to perform certain actions that appear "miraculous." These greys are less viscous towards humans than type A greys (but are still considered "hostile".) They tend to influence more through political controls and negotiated agreements with those in power. Their main bases seem to be in the Aleutian Islands. These are the type seen not long ago in Eastern Russia.
GREY TYPE C:
These are the shortest of the greys and tend to be about 3.5 ft. tall. Their facial features are very similar to the Zeta Reticuli greys and are of the same "root race.". They are just as hostile to humans as the Zetas. They are from a star system near the shoulder of Orion called Bellatrax.
GREY TYPE D:
The Greys appear to represent the only non-human contingent. The following data should be considered tentative at best. Height is approximately five and a half feet. The head is large; eyes large, black and very slanted. Skin color is dark grey and non-porous. All data so far indicates that they may be a cetacean-based life form. On Earth, this comprises the species of whales and dolphins. Descriptions of Greys' skin color and texture closely match that of dolphins. The stare and stun effects approximate that performed by dolphins on potential enemies, such as sharks and barracuda. Human and dolphin fetuses are nearly identical, up to a certain development stage. Some say they share a common genetic ancestor. If so, then this makes the hybridization of humans and dolphins theoretically feasible.
GREY TYPE E: Human/Grey Hybrids
One of the main ET projects, now in the completion stage, is the hybrid program. The goal of this project is to produce a being combining the best physical and mental qualities of both races. The following description is of a hybrid female, approximately fifteen years old. Height is five feet, three inches; skin color is pale white/grey. The head is slightly larger and rounder than normal. Hair is dark, high above the forehead, and worn in a very long ponytail. The face is very fine-featured, and attractive. Like all the beings discussed in this paper, her main method of communication is telepathic. This has allowed a deeper understanding of her intellectual and emotional make-up. They consider themselves human, not Grey, in almost all respects. They care about the Greys, as any child would a parent, but find them agonizingly boring. The desire for human contact is greater than all others. Their capacity for emotion is as great, if not greater than, humans. Any physical attribute more human than Grey is a great source of pride. Their intellectual capacity is well above human standards. It is very likely they will exceed the capabilities of both races.
ALIEN TYPE 2: THE REPTILIANS:
A genetics akin to reptiles, these are highly advanced entities but viewed as being of a negative, hostile or dangerous disposition since they regard humans as a totally inferior race. They would perceive us much the way we would perceive a herd of cattle. They are carnivorous in regard to humans. They consider earth to be their own ancient outpost and would expect to have complete control of the entire planet upon their return. These are the aliens who are served by the type A greys.
ALIEN TYPE 3: HUMAN TYPE ALIENS HUMAN TYPE A:
These are of a genetic base similar to humans of earth. They appear of "normal" height (5-6ft?) and tend to be fair-skinned with blonde hair. These entities have been abducted by the greys or are the offspring of abductees and have been trained by the greys as servants. These entities are totally subservient to the greys.
HUMAN TYPE B:
These are aliens of similar genetics to earth humans and also, it seems, of the humans that serve the greys. These are from the Pleiades and are also of the blonde, fair-skinned appearance. This type is of a genuine highly evolved, spiritual, benevolent variety and have a kinship toward humans and are the only aliens to be truly trusted by earth humans at this time. They had at one time offered to be of assistance to earth leaders in dealing with the alien situation here but were rebuffed and so have taken a kind of "hands off" approach for the time being. These aliens are supposedly the forefather race of humankind. These are apparently not on earth much at this time due to serious problems in the area of their home.
HUMAN TYPE C:
Very little is known about these. They are supposedly another of the highly evolved, spiritual type of great benevolence to earth humans. I understand that their appearance is similar to other human-type aliens. They are from Sirius and don't appear to be much involved with earth happenings at this time other than being concerned about the Grey scenario. They could desire to be of help to humans. There are other known human type aliens of this "more highly spiritually evolved" nature that are apparently aware of the situation on earth and considering some possible course of action. These are from Arcturus and Vega.
Non Earth-Born Humans This GROUP consists of three peoples from three distinct colony zones, namely Sirius, Pleiades and Orion. Genetically, they are nearly identical to Earth-born humans with the following exceptions. Abductees refer to these beings as the talls. Males average up to approximately seven feet in height; females, six and a half feet. They are extremely fine featured, pale in complexion. Eyes are almond shaped, slightly slanted with a natural black liner, much like the renderings of ancient Egyptian royalty. There are three hair colors apparently related to colony origin: blonde (Pleiades), red (Orion), and black (Sirius). The insignia of these combined human races is a triangular arrangement of three spheres. This symbol has deep significance, and is found throughout Earth history. History records these beings as goddesses, gods, devas, etc. A subgroup of GROUP A females is in command of most Terran projects.
Earth-Born Humans These are Homo Sapiens whose origin is the planet Earth. They can be divided into two separate classes.
Class A: (Ancient)
These humans were the companions and house servants of a GROUP A military mining and occupation force. When this force left the Earth sometime between 1,000 BC and 3,500 BC, it was decided to remove all humans that had been in close proximity with them. It was felt that leaving them would only further disrupt normal human development. Class A humans are on an equal level with GROUP A and cooperate fully in all Earth projects.
Class M: (Modern)
These humans are working on the same cooperative level as Class A. They were taken from the Earth in modern times. During some abduction projects, twins (either identical or fraternal) are induced in a female subject. During the first trimester, one of the fetuses is removed. It is then grown to maturity by GROUP A. Abductees will meet their twins during some abductions. Very limited contact has been made by these humans.
Genetically Modified Earth-Born Humans
These humans are comprised of two classes and should not be confused with GROUP D Greys.
Class W: (Workers)
- This class is the smallest in physical stature. They are described as approximately three and a half feet in height, large head and eyes, pale white in complexion. These workers were created by GROUP A through genetic modification of Earth human fetuses. Their function is to perform menial tasks requiring limited reasoning abilities. In mental capacity, they are equivalent to a five year-old child. They are incapable of violence and, in some cases, are kept as companions by GROUP A individuals.
Class T: (Technicians)
- These humans are basically the same as Class W. they are slightly larger, at approximately four and a half feet in height. Their complexion is tan or yellowish. Their reasoning and deductive abilities are higher. This allows them to perform more complex operations. They are often seen operating ship controls and in transport activities. Both Classes W and T are telepathically camouflaged to appear as Greys to abductees. This is done to conceal the true nature of GROUP C. It is felt that perception of GROUP A maintaining a human slave population would hinder future contact efforts. This point will undoubtedly be a source of much heated debate in the near future.
The Group of Twenty (G-20) Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was established in 1999 to bring together systemically important industrialized and developing economies to discuss key issues in the global economy. The inaugural meeting of the G-20 took place in Berlin, on December 1516, 1999, hosted by German and Canadian finance ministers.
The G-20 is an informal forum that promotes open and constructive discussion between industrial and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability. By contributing to the strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions, the G-20 helps to support growth and development across the globe.
The G-20 was created as a response both to the financial crises of the late 1990s and to a growing recognition that key emerging-market countries were not adequately included in the core of global economic discussion and governance. Prior to the G-20 creation, similar groupings to promote dialogue and analysis had been established at the initiative of the G-7. The G-22 met at Washington D.C. in April and October 1998. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries. Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the global economy and the international financial system. The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy's susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries. Such a regular dialogue with a constant set of partners was institutionalized by the creation of the G-20 in 1999.
The G-20 is made up of the finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, and also the European Union who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank. To ensure global economic fora and institutions work together, the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings on an ex-officio basis. The G-20 thus brings together important industrial and emerging-market countries from all regions of the world. Together, member countries represent around 90 per cent of global gross national product, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade) as well as two-thirds of the world's population. The G-20's economic weight and broad membership gives it a high degree of legitimacy and influence over the management of the global economy and financial system.
The G-20 has progressed a range of issues since 1999, including agreement about policies for growth, reducing abuse of the financial system, dealing with financial crises and combating terrorist financing. The G-20 also aims to foster the adoption of internationally recognized standards through the example set by its members in areas such as the transparency of fiscal policy and combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism. In 2004, G-20 countries committed to new higher standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters. This aims to combat abuses of the financial system and illicit activities including tax evasion. The G-20 also plays a signficant role in matters concerned with the reform of the international financial architecture.
The G-20 has also aimed to develop a common view among members on issues related to further development of the global economic and financial system and held an extraordinary meeting in the margins of the 2008 IMF and World Bank annual meetings in recognition of the current economic situation. At this meeting, in accordance with the G-20s core mission to promote open and constructive exchanges between advanced and emerging-market countries on key issues related to global economic stability and growth, the Ministers and Governors discussed the present financial market crisis and its implications for the world economy. They stressed their resolve to work together to overcome the financial turmoil and to deepen cooperation to improve the regulation, supervision and the overall functioning of the worlds financial markets.
Unlike international institutions such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), IMF or World Bank, the G-20 (like the G-7) has no permanent staff of its own. The G-20 chair rotates between members, and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries each year. In 2009 the G-20 chair is the United Kingdom, and in 2010 it will be South Korea. The chair is part of a revolving three-member management Troika of past, present and future chairs. The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years.
Former G-20 Chairs
* 1999-2001 Canada
* 2002 India
* 2003 Mexico
* 2004 Germany
* 2005 China
* 2006 Australia
* 2007 South Africa
* 2008 Brazil
Meetings and activities
It is normal practice for the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors to meet once a year. The last meeting of ministers and governors was held in São Paulo, Brazil on 8-9 November 2008. The ministers' and governors' meeting is usually preceded by two deputies' meetings and extensive technical work. This technical work takes the form of workshops, reports and case studies on specific subjects, that aim to provide ministers and governors with contemporary analysis and insights, to better inform their consideration of policy challenges and options.
Towards the end of 2008 Leaders of the G-20 Countries meet in Washington. See the Declaration and action plan from the Washington Summit (PDF 72KB) . This meeting remitted follow up work to Finance Ministers. In addition to their November meeting in order to take forward this work in advance of the Leaders summit in London on 2nd April Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors will also meet in March 2009. A deputies meeting will be held in February 2009 to prepare for the Ministers meeting.
Deputies Meeting 1st February 2009
Officials Workshop Financing for Climate Change 13th & 14th February 2009
Deputies Meeting 13th March 2009
Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting 14th March 2009
Officials Workshop on Global Economy 25th 26th May 2009
Officials Workshop on Sustainable Financing for Development June 2009
Deputies Meeting September 2009
Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting 7th & 8th November 2009
Interaction with other international organizations
The G-20 cooperates closely with various other major international organizations and fora, as the potential to develop common positions on complex issues among G-20 members can add political momentum to decision-making in other bodies. The participation of the President of the World Bank, the Managing Director of the IMF and the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee in the G-20 meetings ensures that the G-20 process is well integrated with the activities of the Bretton Woods Institutions. The G-20 also works with, and encourages, other international groups and organizations, such as the Financial Stability Forum, in progressing international and domestic economic policy reforms. In addition, experts from private-sector institutions and non-government organisations are invited to G-20 meetings on an ad hoc basis in order to exploit synergies in analyzing selected topics and avoid overlap.
The country currently chairing the G-20 posts details of the group's meetings and work program on a dedicated website. Although participation in the meetings is reserved for members, the public is informed about what was discussed and agreed immediately after the meeting of ministers and governors has ended. After each meeting of ministers and governors, the G-20 publishes a communiqué which records the agreements reached and measures outlined. Material on the forward work program is also made public.
Sunday, 29 March 2009
Demand the G20 put people first -- sign the emergency petition below and our worldwide call will be carried to the streets by tens of thousands of people marching through central London, wearing green hard hats and carrying banners and flags to symbolise green jobs and a sustainable recovery. Then, next week, we'll deliver the petition directly to summit officials and leaders.
Every country is being asked to sign up to a deal to replace the Kyoto Protocol
Scientists say a temperature rise of two degrees by the end of the century is inevitable, with all the impact that will have.
As is a sea level rise of one metre, and perhaps more.
On top of all that, some think that three-quarters of the Amazon rainforest could be lost.
Professor Katherine Richardson, of Copenhagen University, organised the emergency conference. She told Sky News Online: "In terms of the natural science - what's happening on this planet at the moment - there isn't very much, if any, good news from this meeting.
"On the other hand, there is some good news coming from social science here. There are lots of things we have in our tool box we can use, right now, to actively combat climate change."
At the start of December Copenhagen will play host to thousands of the world's politicians and policy-makers when the crucial United Nations climate conference takes place.
The task is to get every country in the world to sign up to an emissions reduction deal to replace the Kyoto Protocol.
The question being asked by the scientists here: will their urgent warnings inspire an ambitious deal?
Professor Kevin Anderson, director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, told Sky News Online he thinks success in December is far from certain.
"I think it's extremely unlikely that the politicians will start to produce policies that will reflect the scale of the science discussed here, so I think the policy agenda will fall far short of what's being called for by the scientists.
"And I think we'll rue the day, that we'll regret in many years to come, that this was a wonderful occasion and we let the side down."
If the politicians do fail to take advantage of the opportunity December's conference presents, many scientists are convinced that their predictions of future climate upheaval will begin to impact on us all.
Sydney's skyline after the light switch-off for Earth Hour 2009
Lights were turned off at 8.30pm local time to mark Earth Hour, organised by the WWF.
To start the annual event, diesel generators were switched off on the Chatham Islands, a small archipelago off the east coast of New Zealand.
Lights then went out at Sydney's Opera House and Harbour Bridge.
Asia followed with lights at landmarks in China, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines dimming as people celebrated with candle-lit picnics and concerts.
Other iconic landmarks falling into darkness this year include the Eiffel Tower, Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Table Mountain in Cape Town, CN Tower in Toronto and the MGM Grand Casino in Las Vegas.
Chiller in Manila
Among the landmarks taking part in Britain are Nelson's Column, the Forth Bridge, the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, and the London Eye.
The public is also being urged to get involved in their own homes.
"We are sitting here near the harbour. There are about 60 or 70 people here having a picnic," an Earth Hour spokesman said in Sydney.
The organisers suggested people in Britain took part with picnics, acoustic gigs and pub quizzes in the dark.
Earth Hour began in Sydney in 2007, when more than two million homes and businesses switched off their lights for an hour.
A year later, 50 million people switched off their lights, with the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, Rome's Colosseum and the huge billboard in Times Square, New York, all standing in darkness.
But thanks to icy conditions, a series of levees and sandbag dikes constructed to keep the waters at bay were not breached, as waters feeding the river froze.
Now weary residents have turned their attention to ensuring their hastily built levees hold up against an onslaught of ice-laden water.
Red River floodwaters surround a home in Fargo, North Dakota
The flooding in Fargo
President Obama has pledged support for those affected, issuing a federal disaster declaration for 34 counties and two Native American reservations.
Mr Obama also declared a state of emergency for parts of Minnesota, the state which shares a Red River border with North Dakota.
A meteorologist for the US National Weather Service, Mike Hudson, said the Red River began receding on Saturday morning.
Residents were originally braced for a crest on Sunday and several thousand had evacuated the area.
But the river can still fluctuate up to a foot - and may remain at dangerous levels for a week, meaning people will have to wait several days before they are completely safe.
A pastor has been shot dead while delivering a Sunday sermon at a church in Illinois. Members of the congregation overpowered the gunman when his weapon jammed.
An 11-year-old boy has been charged with the murder of his father’s pregnant girlfriend.
Jordan Brown is charged with killing his father's girlfriend
Kenzie Marie Houk was found dead in the bedroom of her farmhouse in western Pennsylvania by her four-year-old daughter on Friday morning.
Lawrence County District Attorney John Bongivengo said that Jordan Brown had been charged as an adult in the shooting of 26-year-old Ms Houk and her unborn baby.
A four-year-old boy has shot his babysitter because he was angry with him for stepping on his foot.
A boy holds a replica shotgun
The child knew how to load and fire the weapon
Teenage carer Nathan Beavers probably thought the youngster was joking when he said he was going to get a weapon.
But the child from Ohio, USA, came back into the room with a shotgun and fired into the babysitter's arm and side.
The 18-year-old had been looking after the boy in a mobile home in Jackson county.
He was rushed to hospital along with another teenager who was also hit by the gunfire.
Neither died from their injuries, reportedly because the ammunition was bird pellets rather than bullets.
The boy's father is said to be shocked that his son knew how to load the weapon.
Carthage, North Carolina
The shooting happened at a nursing home in Carthage, North Carolina
Authorities say the gunman, who is in custody, was among those injured.
Police Chief Chris McKenzie told local television station WRAL the shooter entered Pinelake Health and Rehab in the town of Carthage around 10.00am and opened fire.
The 90-bed facility is a care centre for patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease.
Police have not said what motivated the deadly attack.
A spokeswoman for the county hospital confirmed six patients were brought into the emergency department this morning.
Emily Sloane said one was in surgery and one had been released.
She would not confirm that the gunman was among those being treated.
"We activated our emergency plan when we got the notification," said Ms Sloane.
"We did put the hospital on lockdown, just given the nature of the incident."
Area 51-Fact or Fiction?
Area 51 is a military base, and a remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base. It is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western United States, 83 miles (133 km) north-northwest of downtown Las Vegas. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of Groom Lake, is a large secretive military airfield. The base's primary purpose is to support development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems.
The base lies within the United States Air Force's vast Nevada Test and Training Range. Although the facilities at the range are managed by the 99th Air Base Wing at Nellis Air Force Base, the Groom facility appears to be run as an adjunct of the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) at Edwards Air Force Base in the Mojave Desert, around 186 miles (300 km) southwest of Groom, and as such the base is known as Air Force Flight Test Center (Detachment 3).
Though the name Area 51 is used in official CIA documentation, other names used for the facility include Dreamland, Paradise Ranch, Home Base, Watertown Strip, Groom Lake, and most recently Homey Airport. The area is part of the Nellis Military Operations Area, and the restricted airspace around the field is referred to as (R-4808N), known by the military pilots in the area as "The Box" or "the Container".
The intense secrecy surrounding the base, the very existence of which the U.S. government barely acknowledges, has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component to unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore.